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Antidepressant medications are used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD). They are very helpful to treat depression & anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder.
There are many kinds of antidepressants. All are different on the basis of their working in the brain. They are helpful to treat many anxiety conditions and symptoms but they do have some side effects also. Each of the antidepressants has different side effects. Every people responds differently to these side effects. Some might not feel anything while some may have some serious side effects of the medications. So there is a need to try different medications to get the right fit.
Now, we are going to have a discussion about various types of antidepressants and the side effects that are associated with them. The possibility and severity of side effects vary from person to person. That may include the side effects which are not listed here.
These SSRI medications are known to affect serotonin which is a neurotransmitter that affects the mood and behavior in the person. These neurotransmitters are chemical messengers acting in the body.
When the serotonin is released by the brain, some part of serotonin is consumed in communicating with the other cells, while some part of it goes back to the parent cell that released it. SSRIs decrease the amount of serotonin that goes back to the parent cell, so much space is available vacant for the other cells to establish a communication with the brain.
Although it is a hot topic to research how serotonin level leads the patient into depression. But many researchers believed that if the serotonin level is low, the person might be at the risk to develop depression.
The frequent side effects from the above with SSRI may be the sexual problem. There can also be seen appetite change, frequent weight gain problems.
These are much similar to SSRI and are used to treat MDD (Major Depressive Disorder). SNRI works by preventing cells in the brain from reabsorption of particular neurotransmitters. So, these neurotransmitters will be available to communicate with the other cells and the brain. SNRIs often affect serotonin and norepinephrine.
SNRIs are responsible for sexual problems but it is not as frequent as SSRIs. Frequent weight change is also common in which weight loss is more commonly seen. In rare cases, people taking SNRIs may also be seen with increased blood pressure.
TCAs are prescribed to the patients when SSRI and SNRI do not work on them. Although research is still going on to ensure how these work well in reducing depression.
Tetracyclic antidepressants like maprotiline are used for treating depression symptoms and anxiety disorders. It helps put in balancing the neurotransmitters and ease out symptoms of depression.
Dopamine reuptake blockers like Bupropion (Wellbutrin, Forfivo, Aplenzin) are mild dopamine as well as norepinephrine reuptake blocker. They are used to treat depression as well as Seasonal Affective Disorders. They are also being used in smoking cessation. Its common side effects are:
The 5-HT1A Receptor Antagonist such as vortioxetine is helpful to treat depression because it affects the work activity of brain chemicals.
Its commonly seen side effects include:
The MAOIs are the oldest known drug for depression treatment. They stop the breaking down of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin and this is how they work. It is difficult for the patients to take more antidepressants because they interfere with prescribed and other non-prescribed drugs for depression. They can't be used in combination with stimulants and antidepressants.
Noradrenergic antagonist such as Mirtazapine is basically used to treat depression. This antagonist works by replacing particular chemicals in the brain and hence it ease out symptoms persisting in depression.
The other antidepressant drugs apart from the above fall into this category i.e. Atypical medication. This depends on your psychologist that who may also prescribe these medications.
For an instance, olanzapine/fluoxetine is a kind of atypical antidepressant medication. This medication is used to treat depressive symptoms as well as bipolar disorder when the other antidepressants do not seem to be much effective.
Some people do not like to rely on medicines and drugs such as antidepressants. They prefer to use natural treatment for mental health issues such as depression, stress, anxiety, etc. While on the other side, some may prefer it to use as an add-on with antidepressant medications. Some herbs are seen with proven results to fight depression. They are seen with positive results on depression patients. These herbs can be used instead of having antidepressants or as an add-on with antidepressants. These are Ashwagandha, Brahmi, Jatamansi, Menthol(Pudina), Maca (Peruvian ginseng), etc.
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