Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is talking therapies that can help you manage your problems by changing the way you think and behave. Its most commonly used to treat anxiety and depression, but can be useful for other mental and physical health problems.
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a form of a psychotherapy that focuses on how your thoughts, beliefs and attitudes affect your feelings and behaviour. CBT aims to teach you effective coping strategies for dealing with different problems throughout life. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is based on the combination of the basic principles from behavioural and cognitive psychology.
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) techniques:
1. Know your Negative Thoughts:
First of all we have to recognize our negative thoughts about how they come to our mind, we can think positively and negatively even in a similar state. You went on a morning walk, after going for a walk, you thought that you have done a complete walk today and have done a lot of hard work, after thinking that you are satisfied and feel happy. In the same way, you went on a morning walk, after a full walk, you think that you have not completed the excursion today, today’s walking was useless, after that you feel negative and you become unhappy.
2. Recognize Cognitive Distortions:
There are many different ways that you can distort your thoughts, which give rise to negative emotions or behaviours. Take a look at the way you think or talk about a problem, and hoe you can do one or more of the following:
- Discounting the positive thoughts.
- Over generalizing by making an overall negative conclusion beyond the current situation.
- Labeling something or someone without knowing more about it or them.
- Catastrophizing by predicting only negative outcomes in future
3. Challenge Negative Thoughts:
Create record of thoughts by putting your thoughts in writing; you will be able to see your thoughts and feelings in a slightly different way. Your thoughts should help in answering these entire questions:
- What emotion did you feel? Rate the intensity using a scale.
- What actually happened? Include where, what, when and how.
- What thought went through your mind? Create rating scale of how much you believed it was truly such as form 1-10 or 1-100.
- What is another way to look at this situation?
- How would you rate your mood after reviewing all these questions? Use a scale.
4. Recognize Pleasant Activities:
Think of something that you enjoyed or enjoyed in the past, or something you want to accomplish, but not yet. If you used to singing and want to be professional singer, think about activities to start with, such as a singing practice or join the class.
5. Replace negative thoughts with positive ones:
Once you learn to indentify triggers that come with negative thoughts and behaviours, then you will be more self-conscious about activating the brain. When you get a negative idea, and then use that moment to evaluate the truth behind that idea.
Use positive affirmations about yourself, your life, and the world around you. Identify positive things, even if are small, that can help to train your brain to think positively.
6. Make list of the pros and cons of the options:
Think about each option available to you, Stick with the most logical options first, then create pros and cons for each. This list will help you to see other options in a more balanced way. Make sure to look at both the positives and negatives and not just one or the other.
7. Review the outcome of the plan:
If the plan led to positive outcomes, enjoy that moments. Even if the problems are not fully “solved”, be thankful that you are headed in the right direction.
If the plan still needs some motivated. Most negative thoughts, feelings, and situations don’t go away overnight, but that doesn’t mean they are impossible to work on.
How Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) works.
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is based on the concept that your thoughts, feelings, physical sensations and actions are interconnected, and that negative thoughts and feelings can trap you in a vicious cycle. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) aims to help you deal with overwhelming problems in a way by breaking them down into smaller parts. You’re shown how to change these negative patterns to improve the way you feel. Unlike some other talking treatments. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) deals with your current problems, rather than focusing on issues from your past. It looks for a practical ways to improve your state of mind on daily basis.
Uses for Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT).
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective way of treating a number of different mental health conditions. In addition to depression or anxiety disorder, CBT can also help people with:
- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
- Panic Disorder
- Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
- Eating Disorder such as Anorexia and Bulimia
- Problems related to Alcohol Misuse
- Anger Management
- Child and Adolescent Problems
- Mood Swings
- Sexual and Relationship
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is also sometimes used to treat people with long-term health conditions, such as:
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
- Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)
A patient was a 27-years-old man suffering from social phobia, youngest n his family, unmarried, graduate, having average socioeconomic status and hailing from Haryana state, India. The patient came to RINPAS OPD with complaints of fearfulness in crowd, sweating, low confidence, negative thoughts, decreased interaction and inferiority complex. The duration of illness was5-6 years. The patient had difficulty in carrying out his daily routine; consequently, he came for treatment. It was revealed from his history that he was fearful as compared to other persons of his age; from childhood, his mother was overprotective about him. His father was dominating and did not listen to anyone in the family; the patient was very scared of his father. Due to fearfulness, he remained dependent on others for the completion of his simple tasks. Gradually he started avoiding gatherings and crowd and did not go out of home. He felt difficulty in interacting with unknown people and even in opening up with people with whom he was familiar. He was not able to talk with them in a crowd. He thought that he did not have a good pattern of behaviour and could not behave like other people. Although he put in efforts to behave normally, yet he sweated a lot during public interaction. Whenever he went out in social gatherings, he thought people were avoiding him, and he felt inferior or disapproved. His self-esteem decreased gradually as he could not take initiative in any activity. Negative ideas also developed in his mind- that he would never flourish; he would not be successful; he would not be able to behave like other people in society. Behavioural analysis was done with regards to antecedent frequent, duration, intensity and motivation of the patient in order to target behaviour. Assessment regarding family interaction system, available support system and perceived of other significant persons towards the patients, was done systematically.
Assessment of the problem
At first, rapport was established with the patient and then clinical interview was conducted, in view of the fact that the patient was suffering since the last 5-6 years. Due to fear in social gatherings, the patient was unable to interact with unknown people. He had lost his confidence and was unable to perform his work efficiently. Whenever he went to new places, he started sweating. He also suffered from inferiority complex and had lost his interest in work. He was unable to maintain his daily routine as he was lethargic. Most of the time, he was worried about his problems and was unable to overcome this feeling of worry. This severely disturbed his social functioning, and he developed depressive features and poor self-esteem.
The result of the present case study is in agreement with those earlier studies that indicate the significance of CBT in the treatment of patients suffering from social phobia. Psycho education proved to be very useful in understanding the dynamics of the patient problems, as well as enable the patient to proceed in a positive direction with the help of emotional support. There was decrease in anxiety and distress. Anxiety improves with the practice of Jacobson’s progressive muscular relaxation technique. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) helps him in modifying negative automatic thoughts, which in turn helped in improving the patient’s self-esteem and changed the patient’s perception and way of thinking about the world and him as well. The emphasis is on shifting the focus of attention, dropping safety behaviours, processing the situation and evaluating what was predicted against what actually happened. This case report highlights the fact that combination of cognitive, emotional and behavioural approaches is effective and is the initial choice of treatment for social phobia.
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