Blogs

underline
Autism Spectrum in Kids

Autism Spectrum in Kids

Autism is a complex neurobehavioral condition that includes impairments in social interaction and developmental language and communication skills combined with rigid, repetitive behavior. Because of the range of the symptoms, this condition is now called autism spectrum disorder (ASD. People usually call it autism (say aw-tiz-um); but officially it is autism spectrum disorder because these problems happen when the brain develop differently and has trouble making sense of the world and helping someone communicate.

Children suffering from autism have trouble in communication. They have problems in understanding what other people think and feel. This situation makes it very hard to express their words, gesture s, facial expression and touch. A child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who is very sensitive may be greatly troubled, sometimes even pained by sounds, touches, smells or sights that seems normal to others. Children who are autistic may have repetitive stereotyped body movements such as rocking, pacing or hand flapping. They are very much responsive to the change in their routines or aggressive or self injurious behaviour. Some children with autism may also develop seizures may not occur until adolescence.

It is possible to say how you might feel when the suspicion starts to creep up that your son or daughter might have a disability. For some parents it’s an absolutely heart breaking.

Signs and Symptoms of Autism

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can look different in different people. It is developmental disability that affects the way people communicate, behave or interact with others. There is no single cause for it, and symptoms can be very mild or very serve. The main features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are problems with social communication and interaction.

Signs of ASD in pre-school children:

Spoken Language:

  • Delayed speech development (for example, speaking less than 50 different words by age of 2), or not speaking at all.
  • Frequent repetition of set words and phrases.
  • Speech that sounds very monotonous or flat.
  • Preferring to communicate using single word, despite being able to speak sentence.

Responding to others:

  • Not responding to their names being called, despite having normal hearing.
  • Rejecting cuddles initiated by a parent or career (although they may initiate cuddles themselves).
  • Reacting unusually negatively when asked to do something by someone else.

Interacting with others:

  • Not being aware of other people’s personal space, or being unusually intolerant of people entering their own personal space.
  • Little interest in interacting with other people, including children of similar age.
  • Not enjoying situations that most children of their age like, such as a birthday parties.
  • Preferring to play alone, rather than asking others to play with them.
  • Rarely using gestures or facial expressions when communicating.
  • Avoid eye contact.

Behaviour:

  • Having repetitive movements such as flapping their hands rocking back and forth, or flicking their fingers.
  • Playing with toys in a repetitive and unimaginative way, such as lining blocks up in order of size or colour rather than using them to build something.
  • Preferring to have a familiar routine and getting very upset if there are changes to this routine.
  • Having a strong like or dislike of certain food based on the texture or colour of the food as much as the taste.
  • Unusual sensory interest. For example, children with ASD may sniff toys, or objects or people inappropriately.

Signs and Symptoms of ASD in school age children:

Spoken Language:

  • Preferring to avoid using spoken language.
  • Speech that sounds very flat.
  • Speaking in pre-learned phrases, rather than putting together individual words to form new sentences.
  • Seeming to talk at people, rather than sharing a two way conversation.

Responding to others:

  • Talking people’s speech literally and being unable to understand sarcasm, or figures of speech.
  • Reacting unusually negatively when asked to do something by someone else.

Interacting with others:

  • Not being aware of other people’s personal space or being unusually intolerant of people entering their own personal space.
  • Little interest in interacting with other people, including children of a similar age, or having few close friends, despite attempts to form friendship.
  • Not understanding how people normally interact socially, such as greeting people or wishing them farewell.
  • Being unable to adopt the tone and content of their speech to different social situations. For examples, speaking very formality at a party and then speaking to total strangers in familiar ways.
  • Not enjoying situations and activities that most children of their age enjoy.
  • Rarely using gestures or facial expression when communicating.
  • Avoiding eye contact.

Behaviour:

  • Repetitive movements, such as flapping their hands, rocking back and forth, or flicking their fingers.
  • Playing in a repetitive and unimaginative manner, often preferring to play with objects rather than people.
  • Developing a highly specific interest in a particular subject or activity.
  • Preferring to have a familiar routine and getting very upset if there are any changes to their normal routine.
  • Having a strong likes or dislikes of certain food based on texture or colour of food as much as the taste.
  • Unusual sensory interests for example, children with ASD may sniff toys, objects or people inappropriate.

Other conditions associated with ASD:

People with ASD often have symptoms or aspects of other conditions, such as;

  • Learning disability.
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ASD).
  • Tourette’s Syndromes.
  • Epilepsy.
  • Dyspraxia.
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD).
  •  Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
  • Depression.
  • Bipolar Disorder.
  • Sleep Problems.
  • Sensory Difficulties.

Treatment of Autism

Even if your child hasn’t officially diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). He/She may still benefits from certain treatments. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) makes those treatments possible for children under age 3 who may be at risk for developmental problems. The type of treatment child receives for an ASD depends on his individual needs. They can include different kinds of therapies, to improve speech and behaviour, and sometimes meditations to manage any condition related to autism.

The treatment of your child can benefits from most depends on his situation and needs, but goals are the same; to reduce his symptoms and improve his learning and development.

Behaviour and Communication Treatment:

  • Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA):  ABA is often used in schools and clinics to help a child learn positive behaviour and reduces the negative ones. This approach can be used to improve a wide range of skills, and there are different situation including.
  • Discrete Trail Training (DTT) uses simple lesson and positive reinforcement.
  • Pivotal Response Training (PRT)   helps to develop motivation to learn and communication.
  • Early Intensive Behavioural Intervention (EIBI) is best of children under age 5.
  • Verbal Behaviour Intervention (VBI) focuses on languages skills.

 

Developmental, Individual Differences, Relationship Based Approach (DI R):

This kind of treatment is better as Floor time. That’s because it involves you getting on the floor with your child to play and do the activities he likes.

It’s meant to support emotional and intellectual growth by helping him learn skills around communication and emotions.

Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH):

This treatment uses visual clues such as picture cards to help your child learn everyday skills like getting dressed. Information is broken down into small steps so he can learn it more easily.

Pictures Exchange Communication System (PECS):

This is another visual-based treatment, but it uses symbol instead of picture cards. Your child learns to ask questions and communicate through special symbols.

Occupational Therapy:

 This kind of treatment helps your child learn life skills like feeding and dressing him, bathing and understand how to relate other peoples. The skills he learns are meant to help him live as independently as he can.

Sensory Integration Therapy:

If your child is easily upset by things like bright lights, certain sounds, or the feeling of being touched, this therapy can help him learn to deal with that kind of sensory information.

 

If you need any kind of help you can consult our Child Psychologist or Child Counselor, online by booking an appointment at www.myfitbrain.in . Feel free to contact us. We are always happy to help you!!!!


Related Blogs