Educational Psychology

18 hours ago 236 Reads 7 min read
Asees Kaur Child Behaviour 28 Nov 2020
Educational counselors

Present-day research in the field of educational psychology is advancing and more sophisticated methodology is being implied into them. Many of the researches are intervention based which mainly focus on improvements in the educational sector and also taking care of the mental health of the students by reducing the negative aspects affecting them.

St Clair-Thompson et al. ((2015) in their article focused on the relationship between mental toughness and different aspects of educational performance including classroom behavior, academic attainment, peer relationships, and school attendance. They conducted three exploratory studies for the same. Mental toughness is regarded as a personality construct which regards to how an individual deals with pressure, challenges, and stressors irrespective of the circumstances. The first study was aimed at finding the relationship between mental toughness and attendance and attainment in school children. 159 participants for the study including 89 males and 70 females were recruited from a school in England.

Mental Toughness Questionnaire 48 was used to assess different dimensions of mental toughness among participants. Data regarding academics and attendance was collected from the respective teachers for a period of 15 weeks. Regression analysis was conducted for the analysis of the results and it was found that there exists a significant relationship between mental toughness and attendance and attainment in school children. However, it was found that control of life is the most important component of mental toughness for attendance and attainment.

Study 2 aimed to find the relationship between mental toughness and classroom behavior of the students. Mental Toughness Questionnaire 48 was used to assess different dimensions of mental toughness among participants and teachers were asked to complete a Conners’ Teachers Rating Scale for each participant. 295 participants including 142 males and 153 females aged between 11-16 years who had not participated in the previous study were recruited for the present study. The results were quite similar to the previous study as control of the life component of mental toughness was seen to be a significant predictor of classroom behavior of children. Furthermore, regression analysis suggested that the commitment component of mental toughness was the best predictor of oppositional behavior.

The final study aimed at exploring the relationship between mental toughness and peer relationships of students. 93 students including 50 males and 43 females aged between 11-13 years were recruited from two schools of England for the study. Mental Toughness Questionnaire 48 was used for measuring the mental toughness of students and the Social Inclusion Survey along with social acceptance scale from the Self-perception profile for assessing peer relations of participants.. The confidence subcomponent of mental toughness was found to be highly related to self-esteem through regression analysis. Different aspects of confidence was found to be related to different aspects of social inclusion. Hence, it was found that overall
there exists a significant relationship between mental toughness and factors associated with having peer relations among students. On the whole, all the studies concluded that there exists a significant relationship between mental toughness and education inculcating all the variables tested above.

The above-mentioned study was very well conducted but the methodology used by the authors in the research could have been made more strong by even equating the SES of the participants or by exploring its effect on the relationship. No information was given regarding the sampling method used which can act as an important factor affecting the results. Also, the sample size also varied across studies and the number of females and males was also not equated. The variables used for the study are highly significant in educational psychology research but the findings were not reported systematically rather the authors only reported the relationships between a few components of the main variable without mentioning all of them.

Overall the results are highly effective and can be applied in the educational settings for improving the student's achievement, behavior, and other related aspects. Stamp et al. (2015) examined the relationship with mental toughness and
psychological wellbeing among undergraduate students. 168 participants including 44 men and 124 women were recruited from nine universities in the united kingdom. Among these 63 were first-year students, 44 second-year students, and 61 final year students. Five percent of the total sample was nonwhite population. The 54 item version of SPWB was used to measure Psychological Wellbeing. The MTQ48 (Clough et al., 2002) was used to measure Mental Toughness. All the components of mental toughness were seen to be significantly and positively associated with all the components of psychological wellbeing through Pearson bivariate correlation. Further regression analysis was performed on the data to get more clarity over the relationship between two variables. Each component of mental toughness was seen as the predictor of one of the components of psychological wellbeing. The result findings are helpful in further developing interventions to increase mental toughness among students so that their psychological wellbeing can be improved.

For the above-mentioned research article online data collection method was used which usually leads to people providing socially desirable responses. Also, there was a huge difference between the number of male participants and female participants which could have impacted the result findings. No result tables were provided in the article to check for the exact values of the analysis. Also, the year of the study of the participants can act as a mediating variable and no consideration was given to it. Moreover, the sampling technique used was convenient sampling which could have further hampered the results and the bias of the researcher must have also influenced it.

Both the article reviewed before are related to the aspects of educational psychology with one variable that is mental toughness being common between the two. The research in article 1 was conducted more extensively as compared to article 2 as it included more variables while incorporating their components as well. The method of analysis used in both the research was the same whereas the age of the participants was varied across both the studies. The first article included three separate studies whereas the second article stated only one study.

Findings from both the studies are highly influential and can be incorporated in the educational institutions to improve the mental toughness of students. As both the studies had their focus mainly on mental toughness so results from both of them can be combined for forming interventions that can enhance mental toughness in students. The findings from the first article suggest that students with high mental toughness are better at various educational variables like attendance, achievement, behavior, etc. The second article further reported that it can even enhance psychological wellbeing.

Some of the interventions of mental toughness are present in the sports which need to be implied in the field of education. As the findings of both the researches is more or less the same it is important that the interventions be made at the earliest pertaining to this. The findings from both the researches are highly applicable in the current scenario of the education system in our country where expert solutions are required to solve the problem.

As findings from the research suggest that certain components of mental toughness have a significant relationship with components of other educational variables, emphasis can be given to that too so that the individual needs of the students can be taken care of. Researches from the first study also found that the learning environment has its impact on the mental toughness of the student so by altering the learning environment we can even alter the mental toughness of
an individual. Also, psychological skills training can be used to enhance the mental toughness of the students. Therefore, upon analyzing the research articles it was found that both the articles apart from their limitations had significant result findings which can be implied actually into the education system through the means of interventions.

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